Electrophilic Amination of Carbanions, Enolates, and Their Surrogates

Ciganek, Engelbert


This chapter deals with the formation of carbon-nitrogen bonds by reaction of carbon nucleophiles with electrophilic aminating reagents. The former encompass aliphatic and aromatic carbanions, enolates and their surrogates such as enamines, enol esters, and enol ethers, as well as carbanions stabilized by cyano or sulfone groups or by phosphorus. A section entitled Reagents and Mechanisms lists the many aminating reagents available and discusses the mechanisms by which the more important ones react. Among the electrophiles discussed are halo amines, various hydroxylamine derivatives, oxaziridines, imines, oximes, diazonium salts, diazo compounds, azo compounds, and azides. The section on Scope and Limitations is organized by carbon nucleophiles and attempts to suggest the best reagents for each class. A number of electrophilic aminating reagents that have been omitted from the scope of this chapter are briefly discussed, with references to reviews, in the section on Comparison with Other Methods. Tables listing references to the preparation of the various aminating reagents are found in the section on Experimental Conditions. References to the conversion of non-amine products into amines are also provided there. The literature is covered to the middle of 2007.