This chapter is a comprehensive summary of transition-metal-catalyzed hydroacylation. Coverage includes intra- and intermolecular alkene, alkyne, and carbonyl hydroacylation, including examples using formic esters and formamides as coupling partners. In addition, the mechanism and stereochemical rationale for regio- and/or enantioselective hydroacylation using various metal catalysts is presented in full detail. The scope and limitations of this method as well as examples of hydroacylation applied to natural products synthesis are discussed. Moreover, a comparison of transition-metal-catalyzed hydroacylation to NHC catalysis, and optimal conditions to perform hydroacylation reactions are presented.